FASO SOAP, vainqueur du Global Social Venture Capital

FASO SOAP, vainqueur du Global Social Venture Capital

L’Afrique et l’innovation (2)

Dans mon post du 7 avril, j’avais promis de partager avec quelques exemples d’innovations réalisées en Afrique.

Savez-vous que la finale mondiale de la Global Social Venture Capital (http://www.gsvc-essec.org/) a été remportée par deux jeunes Burkinabés, étudiants à 2iE : premier prix du jury et prix du coup de cœur du public. Qu’est-ce le GSVC ? C’est l’unique compétition internationale de Business Plans Sociaux, dédiée aux étudiants et jeunes diplômés, créateurs d’entreprises à fort impact social et/ou environnemental.  Qu’ont proposé Moctar et Gérard, les deux jeunes étudiants ? Ils ont créé FASO SOAP : c’est un savon anti-moustique accessible à tous,  produit à partir de ressources 100% locales permettant de protéger ses utilisateurs du paludisme (http://vimeo.com/63409639). Quelle pertinence ! Quelle réponse adéquate à un besoin essentiel de nos populations ! Voilà une belle illustration de l’Afrique qui innove et qui avance. Dans bien d’autres domaines, des africains, jeunes et moins jeunes, adoptent une posture ambitieuse et se mettent en situation de franchir une « Nouvelle Frontière ».

Il y a deux semaines, j’étais à Dakar dans le cadre de mes activités professionnelles et ai eu l’occasion de rencontrer beaucoup de porteurs de projets dans le domaine des TIC, en particulier dans celui des services à valeur ajoutée accessible via le téléphone mobile. J’ai été non pas surpris, mais très positivement impressionné par la qualité et le caractère potentiellement innovant des projets qui nous (mon équipe et moi) ont été présentés. Pour résumer ma pensée et qualifier ces projets de façon simple, j’emprunterai les mots du Président Senghor : enracinement et ouverture. Enracinement aux besoins du terrain et à la culture locale, ouverture vers les technologies les plus avancées.

Des échos qui me viennent des différentes parties de l’Afrique, les initiatives privées dans les TIC foisonnent, de bons projets qui ne demandent qu’à être accompagnés émergent. Mais, malheureusement, les états, dans leur grande majorité, malgré leurs déclarations d’intention et leurs professions de foi sur le caractère stratégique des TIC, peinent à apporter le soutien minimal nécessaire à la concrétisation de ces projets, à leur transformation en véritables innovations qui améliorent la vie des africains.

Je voudrais avant de finir revenir à mes exemples et en détailler deux :

1)          Le logiciel de gestion des banques de l’habitat : conçu par Moustapha Sarr (Directeur Général de Crésus Afrique et ancien Directeur Moyens Informatiques et Méthode de la BH Sénégal) et développé dans les années 1980 par son équipe informatique aidée de consultants externes, il avait été choisi par les banques de l’habitat du Mali, de la Côte d’Ivoire et du Congo. Il faisait alors référence dans son domaine grâce à sa flexibilité et son adaptabilité aux besoins liés au financement de l’habitat dans les pays concernés.

2)             Sonatel est née en 1985 d’une innovation voulue par l’état du Sénégal dans l’organisation institutionnelle du secteur des postes et télécommunications. A l’époque où l’état prenait cette décision de séparer la poste des télécommunications et de regrouper l’activité des télécommunications –nationales et internationales- dans une seule société nationale autonome, rares étaient les pays européens ou africains où une telle mesure était envisagée. Ensuite, la réussite s’est bâti, grâce à un leadership éclairé et à visage humain, sur une série d’innovations :

  1. Bonne gouvernance à l’époque où ce terme était quasi inconnu et pas du tout galvaudé comme aujourd’hui. Les maîtres mots ont été dès le début, en particulier à partir de 1988 : exemplarité, probité morale et intellectuelle, tolérance zéro à l’égard des voleurs et des fraudeurs ;
  1. Investissements massifs dans des technologies avancées et volonté d’une large couverture du pays : réseau de communication de données X25 pour les entreprises en 1988, vaste programme de téléphonie rurale – déjà en 1990, le slogan était « mettre chaque sénégalais à moins d’une heure de marche d’un téléphone qui fonctionne avant 2005 »-, vaste programme d’automatisation et de numérisation du réseau dans toutes les régions du pays à partir de 1987-1988, introduction de la Fibre Optique en 1990-1991, création du 1erISP sénégalais en 1991, participation à plusieurs projets de câbles sous-marins par fibre optique (3 autoroutes différentes pour sortir du Sénégal aujourd’hui), réseau IP pour les entreprises, mobile GSM en 1996, ADSL en 2003, mobile 3G en 2008, etc.
  1. La privatisation de l’entreprise en 1997 avec la décision clairvoyante prise par l’état de privatiser avant de libéraliser, se détourant des conseils de « ceux qui détiennent la vérité et se sont toujours trompés » et donnant la chance au Sénégal d’avoir un opérateur historique fort. Il n’y a quasiment pas de pays avec un réseau de télécommunications développé sans opérateur historique fort.
  1. L’introduction en 1998 de l’entreprise à la Bourse Régionale d’Abidjan qui a permis de créer un actionnariat populaire au Sénégal et dans la plupart des pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Sonate, seule entreprise sénégalaise présente à la Bourse d’Abidjan, représente encore de l’ordre de 40% de la capitalisation
  1. Croissance externe par l’acquisition de licences d’opérateurs dans la sous-région ouest-africaine.
  1. Fondation Sonatel : 1èrefondation d’entreprise au Sénégal créée en 2002, elle œuvre dans les domaines de l’éducation, de la santé et de la culture et a des réalisations emblématiques comme l’IRM installé en 2009 dans un CHU de Dakar, la prise en charge médicale gratuite de personnes âgées, l’organisation du 1er téléthon pour la lutte contre le paludisme en 2003, le programme de scolarisation des jeunes.
  1. La politique sociale, avec en particulier l’actionnariat salarié et une politique d’habitat ambitieuse et adaptée au contexte local « un sonatélien, une maison avant la retraite ».
  1. Un syndicalisme clairvoyant et patriote qui s’est mobilisé à chaque fois que les intérêts de l’entreprise et du pays ont été menacés : un slogan évocateur, le patriotisme d’entreprise ».

Sonatel n’a pas manqué de faire des émules dans le monde des entreprises aussi au Sénégal qu’en Afrique et même largement au-delà ;

Je pourrai encore citer d’autres exemples d’innovations ou d’innovateurs tels que

–        Mo Ibrahim, fondateur de Celtel, qui a été le premier à croire au succès du mobile en Afrique,

–        mPedigree, solution développée par un Ghanéen utilisant le mobile pour lutter contre les médicaments contrefaits,

–        le succès phénoménal du mobile money au Kenya avec m-Pesa

–        CARDIOGLOB : c’est donc un projet développé par le Camerounais Marc Arthur Zhang. Son but est de réduire le taux de mortalité due aux maladies cardiovasculaires en palliant le manque de cardiologues dans les pays pauvres grâce à la mise en œuvre de méthodes innovantes permettant d’effectuer les examens cardiaques et l’interprétation à distance. Il utilise une transmission des données biomédicales via le réseau  téléphonique mobile.

Je sais que bien d’autres exemples, qui me sont inconnus, existent dans bien d’autres domaines tels que l’agriculture, l’entrepreneuriat social, la production d’énergie, l’utilisation des matériaux locaux dans la construction, etc. Les rares domaines où je n’ai trouvé presque aucune trace de démarche vraiment innovante restent ceux relatifs à nos institutions politiques et à nos politiques de développement.

Pour enrichir le débat, je vous invite à partager avec nous toute démarche susceptible d’apporter une innovation dans quelque domaine que ce soit.

Merci et à bientôt ; le sommeil me gagne.

Publié par Samba Sène à 00:05

MERCREDI 24 AVRIL 2013

Le prix de l’innovation pour l’Afrique (finalistes)

Le prix de l’innovation pour l’Afrique (finalistes)

L’Afrique et l’innovation (3)

Le prix de l’innovation pour l’Afrique a choisi ses 10 finalistes le 24 avril (http://innovationprizeforafrica.org/) Le gagnant sera annoncé le 7 mai à Cape Town et recevra 100 000 USD. Belle et louable initiative pour stimuler la créativité et développer l’esprit d’entreprise, même si elle reste un peu confidentielle. Pourquoi n’y a-t-il plus de communication pour mieux faire connaître une telle opération, d’autant plus qu’elle est organisée par la Fondation Africaine et surtout la Commission Economique pour l’Afriqueorganisme des Nations Unies ? Pourquoi rester aussi timoré lorsqu’il s’agit de faire savoir des choses sérieuses et essentielles ? Bien d’autres événements bien moins importants font l’objet d’une large publicité à travers les ondes africaines. Allez comprendre !

Un des finalistes m’a quand même interpelé : il s’agit de l’inventeur sénégalais Sanoussi Diakité et sa décortiqueuse de fonio (céréale connue en Afrique de l’Ouest). Avec son invention qui date de 1993, Sanoussi Diakité a déjà gagné plusieurs prix au Sénégal, en Afrique et dans le monde. Mais alors, un certain nombre de questions me viennent à l’esprit :

–      Que vient-il chercher dans cette compétition ?

–      Comment cela se fait-il qu’une telle invention n’ait pas encore pu passer à la phase industrielle 20 ans après? Y a-t-il des doutes sur son utilité ou sur la taille de son marché adressable ? Peut-il s’agir d’un problème de financement, si l’on sait que les ressources recherchées sont estimées à 520.000 € ?

J’espère que des lecteurs avertis pourront nous éclairer, car je n’arrive pas à comprendre qu’un inventeur reste sur les starting blocks pendant autant d’années.

Sans connaître les raisons de cette situation, je puis néanmoins affirmer que, dans tous les cas, le passage de l’innovation nécessite au moins une qualité essentielle qu’est la capacité d’exécution. « Elle consiste à savoir traduire ses décisions en actes, les mettre en œuvre en dépit des résistances, du chaos ou des obstacles imprévus. Celui qui possède cette qualité sait que gagner est affaire de résultats. » 1

Merci et à bientôt

1  Jack Welch « Mes conseils pour réussir »

Publié par Samba Sène à 21:46

DIMANCHE 28 AVRIL 2013

Le prix de l’innovation pour l’Afrique 2013

Le prix de l’innovation pour l’Afrique 2013

L’Afrique et l’innovation (4)
Le prix de l’innovation pour l’Afrique a livré son verdict (http://africaninnovationnews.com/news-3/#news3): le vainqueur est l’équipe sud-africaine de chercheurs et entrepreneurs d’AgriPortein Technologies qui a développé une nouvelle source de protéines animales à partir de larves de mouches. Cette invention, qui a d’énormes chances de devenir une véritable innovation, devrait avoir un impact très positif sur la réduction du coût des aliments en Afrique par une baisse notable du coût de l’alimentation du bétail pour les fermiers et producteurs africains.
Le 2ème prix a été décerné à la start-up tunisienne Saphon Energy qui a mis au point une éolienne sans pales en vue de produire une énergie propre et rentable.
Deux inventions prometteuses et opportunes: elles apportent des solutions originales dans deux domaines prioritaires en Afrique, l’alimentation et l’énergie.
Au delà du prix (100000 USD pour le 1er et 25000 pour le 2ème) que les promoteurs ont reçu, j’espère qu’ils bénéficieront de l’accompagnement (financier notamment) nécessaire pour créer rapidement une activité rentable et durable à partir de leur invention.
Merci et à bientôt

Faire sa part

Faire sa part

Faire sa part, la légende du colibris
Le colibris est un petit oiseau presqu’insignifiant. Je vous invite à méditer sa légende tirée d’un conte amérindien:
« Un jour, dit la légende, il y eut un immense incendie de forêt. Tous les animaux terrifiés et atterrés observaient, impuissants, le désastre. Seul le petit colibri s’active, allant chercher quelques gouttes d’eau dans son bec pour les jeter sur le feu. Au bout d’un moment, le tatou, agacé par ses agissements dérisoires, lui dit : « Colibri ! Tu n’es pas fou ? Tu crois que c’est avec ces gouttes d’eau que tu vas éteindre le feu ? » « Je le sais, répond le colibri, mais je fais ma part » .
Merci et à bientôt

The transition to digital television: focus on the priority objective!

On 16 June 2006 in Geneva, more than one hundred countries in Africa, Europe and the Middle East decided, within the framework of the Regional Conference on Radiocommunications of the International Telecommunication Union, to give themselves ten years to pass To digital terrestrial broadcasting. Thus, the date of 17 June 2015 at 1H GMT was chosen for the end of analog television and its replacement by digital terrestrial television (DTT). It is a decisive step in the world of television in the sense that it radically changes the situation: it is a question of passing from a situation of relative scarcity of programs and channels, Offering to the greatest number a wide variety and a great wealth of television content. To put it simply, each current television channel should allow, at the very least, the broadcasting of six digital programs, thus recovering to release frequencies for another use.

Additionally, digital terrestrial television provides better image quality and reduces operating costs for broadcast and transmission compared to analog, but requires high installation costs. For technical reasons of switching from analogue to digital, the introduction of digital terrestrial television requires the installation of a new infrastructure shared by all the television channels – the multiplexing device – and even opens the possibility of Revisit the modalities of broadcasting audiovisual signals: single or multiple broadcaster? There is no doubt that the transition to DTT induces profound changes in the television universe, opens up interesting prospects and offers countless opportunities that a country that aims for emergence would be very wrong not to exploit. However, this profound change in the audiovisual sector is raising many questions and raising important issues.

From a strategic point of view, it is an opportunity to question the state’s television policy and the role of television in society. Since television can have both positive and negative effects in the lives of citizens – men, women, children and adults – it is essential to seize the opportunity of this major development to ask some essential questions: Information and entertainment, do we want to make television a means of interactive communication between the administration and the citizens, a real deepening of democracy? Do we want to make it a powerful vector of education and training? Do we want to make it a tool for preserving our local and regional cultures by using it to promote local content and cultural diversity? These preliminary issues seem to have been taken over by the National Committee for the Transition from Analog to Digital Audiovisual (CNN); This ad hoc structure created by the Prime Minister’s decree in August 2010 and attached to the Ministry of Communication, Telecommunications and the Economy produced a 129-page document entitled “National strategy for the transition from analogue to digital audiovisual”. This document, which is not too heavy, raises the main stakes of the transition and has the merit of proposing a global objective, three strategic axes, four pillars and a multitude of actions that should enable Senegal to make the best of the next advent Of TNT. It seems to cover all the issues of digital transition, such as content quality and diversity, sharing of technical infrastructure, meeting consumer needs at affordable costs, economic viability of operators in the sector The adjustment of the legal and institutional framework to the new situation, the allocation of frequencies freed – digital dividend – to another use, in particular to very high-speed Internet service, public information, Equipment and the whole process of switching to digital, the training of players in the sector, etc.

In short, as formulated in February by the CNN, the overall objective of the national digital switchover strategy covers a fairly broad spectrum and is therefore likely to answer questions about the role of television in society: Is to “ensure to the Senegalese populations, before June 2015, universal access to audiovisual communication services, through a national coverage in digital broadcasting services of socially useful, culturally diverse audiovisual content”. It is hoped that all stakeholders – political, economic, social, cultural, etc. – have been sufficiently involved in the drafting of this strategy paper and have appropriated it. So what about the operational implementation of this strategy now? The creation of the National Steering Committee for the Transition from Analog to Digital (CONTAN) and its formal and solemn installation by the President of the Republic on 30 December 2013 marks a decisive step in the march towards DTT. The CONTAN is in fact responsible for implementing actions necessary for the transition of our country from analogue television to digital television before June 17, 2015. Placed under the authority of the President of the Republic, CONTAN has broad prerogatives to carry out its mission; They cover: the pre-selection of technical and financial partners responsible for constructing, on behalf of the State, the multiplexing and transport infrastructures for audiovisual signals; The conditions relating to the creation, exploitation and dissemination of audiovisual content; Legal and regulatory aspects relating to the specifications of audiovisual program publishers and new concession agreements for broadcasters of audiovisual programs; The terms and conditions for the assignment of new broadcasting frequencies; The management of the digital switchover project.

But the first acts posed by the CONTAN have set the controversy and seemed to have relegated to the background the priority and essential objective of replacing analogue television on digital television before June 17, 2015. Who too embraces embraces! This maxim applies perfectly to the approach undertaken by CONTAN by launching on 20 January 2014 an invitation to tender for three lots: a multiplex network for Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT); A national fiber optic network (3000 km); A 4G / LTE network. Of these three lots, only the one corresponding to the multiplex network seems to be indispensable to the digital transition project. For the national fiber network, alternative and transitory solutions can be found, as Senegal is one of the African countries where fiber optic transmission is the oldest (early 1990s) and the most present (more than 6000 Km already installed). In addition, it seems risky, even illusory, to want to build 3000 km of fiber optics in a timeframe compatible with the expiration of the digital transition project. Regarding the 4G / LTE, the process is even more incomprehensible: to my knowledge, in no country in the world, such a mix of genres has been achieved successfully. In all the cases I have studied, in the countries of Europe (Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium, Germany, France, etc.) and Africa (Morocco, Tunisia, Kenya, South Africa, etc.) .), The two processes – switching to digital television and setting up 4G / LTE infrastructures – were the subject of two independent processes. Pragmatism and the basic principles of good project management to avoid wanting to “run several hares at a time”, when it comes to a project with fixed deadline and short deadlines.

It does not escape anyone that Senegal is far from being ahead of its project of transition to DTT; Then, if it wants to succeed its mission, the CONTAN has every interest to focus on its objective Priority. Otherwise, it is clear that Senegal will not be at the rendezvous of June 17, 2015, will then be obliged to request additional delays and will fail to its international commitments. Concerning 4G / LTE, CONTAN’s approach is rejected by most of the significant players because it derogates from the constructive spirit of dialogue and consultation that has always prevailed in the ICT sector between the state and The different stakeholders at the time of the major structuring decisions. In addition, it makes illegible the state’s strategy for high and very high Internet rates, the cornerstone of the digital economy and contradict the initiatives already taken by the ARTP. In addition, the CONTAN proposals seem to want to bring Senegal back to a situation of state monopoly on infrastructures – 4G / LTE – which no relevant argument seems to justify. How can one imagine that the state could be in debt to the tune of nearly 50 billion CFA francs to finance investments that private operators would be willing to make, while the challenges remain enormous in education, health, Agriculture, transport, electricity? Moreover, the state has a formidable weapon called specifications to indicate the direction and set quantitative and qualitative objectives to private operators.

In short, the implementation of the transition to DTT seems to be badly missed by lack of focus on the essential; But it is still time to redress the bar to allow Senegal to benefit from the transition to DTT, with the emergence of new audiovisual services and a television really serving the development of the country and the flourishing of Populations. “The genius is knowing how to seize opportunities.” The transition from analogue to digital television is a formidable one that Senegal has no right to miss and the authorities have a duty to carry out this process pragmatically with a priority objective in mind and Favoring constructive dialogue with all stakeholders. Samba Sene, April 2014 Actor in the ICT sector Sambasene@wissafrcia.com @BaccSene

 

The mobile currency, the beginnings of the bank of the future in Africa?

Digital changes the rules of the game in all sectors of activity: emergence of new business models, new players, new products and services. The banking and financial sector is no exception; It is particularly concerned with the rapid development of mobile money, especially in Africa. Does mobile money prefigure tomorrow’s bank in Africa? Will non-agency banks take precedence over existing ones? Will all types of financial services with mobile phone range and accessible to all be seen to make financial inclusion an achievable goal in the short term? The M-PESA service in Kenya, which makes Africa the continent of choice for mobile money, paved the way: by 2014, almost 60% of adults have mobile accounts; In 2013, total M-PESA transactions accounted for more than 40% of Kenya’s GDP. According to MarketsandMarkets, the global market for mobile money was estimated at $ 12.34 billion and is expected to reach $ 78 billion by 2019.

According to a World Bank study on access to banking services published on 15 April, one third of holders of monetary accounts in sub-Saharan Africa have a virtual purse associated with their mobile phone. In Africa, mobile penetration reaches or exceeds 10% in 13 countries; In 5 of them (Côte d’Ivoire, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe) mobile accounts exceed traditional bank accounts. Today, money transfer services using the mobile phone are the most important and are developing all over Africa: banks, mobile operators, money transfer operators and new players Compete to control this market. However, many other services are already available via the mobile phone: bill payments (water, electricity, telephone, other businesses), access to micro-insurance, micro-credit, and micro- Savings, etc. It seems therefore reasonable to think that the most important tool for financial inclusion in Africa will be the mobile phone: around 840 million mobiles by the end of 2013 with a penetration rate exceeding 60%. Nevertheless, there are problems that can hamper the development of mobile money and finance.

First, the multiplicity of actors and solutions does not favor the interoperability of systems. And the lack of interoperability does not simplify the lives of people who use these solutions, which can be a barrier to rapid adoption and penetration. Second, the risks of criminal use are real: fraud, money laundering and terrorist financing remain scourges against which appropriate and internationally recognized mechanisms must be put in place. Clearly and more broadly, all regulatory and regulatory issues are worthy of scrutiny and scrutiny in order to create a secure and conducive environment for the rapid development of reliable and universally accessible banking and financial services. Beyond these considerations, it is important that at the political level, financial inclusion strategies take into account the mobile phone as an essential vector of access to banking and financial services for a major part of the population. There are therefore many questions about the evolution of the banking and financial systems and the role that the various actors could play there: what role for mobile operators and for other non-banking players? The strategic responses to these questions will help set the stage for a move towards the banking and financial systems of the future; They will be open, reliable and accessible to all segments of the population. Samba Sene, April 2015 WISS AFRICA Sambasene@wissafrica.com

Senegal, the Digital New Frontier

It has been at least 30 years that we speak of “Senegal, country of services”, especially in the field of ICT. Today, even if Senegal remains among the countries that count in Africa in this field thanks to the power of its main telecommunications operator, it is no longer cited as a model and is beginning to lack appeal for those wishing to invest Or invest in the ICT sector. The hopes aroused at the beginning of the decade 2000 – 2010 with the role played and the position occupied by Senegal in NEPAD disappeared: – the introductory phrase of the 2005 Sector Policy Letter of the President of the Republic “I pledged to build the road leading to the emergence of e-Senegal” seems to have remained a pious wish; – the introduction of a new telecommunications code in 2011 does not seem to have given the global ICT sector the impetus expected by the weakest players: service companies, Internet service providers, entrepreneurs wishing to invest in the Telecommunications, etc. – the award of the 3rd mobile telephony was carried out in a great opacity and is still a subject of controversy and a legal case; – the attempts to destabilize the first two operators have been repeated: sneaky blows of a sneak to Sonatel, sword of Damocles of the withdrawal of the license on the head of Sentel; – the regulator of the telecommunications sector has not been able to gain credibility and authority in the sector because it has not been able to demonstrate sufficient independence and competence; – the great intentions of the SCA (ICT cluster and teleservices) seem to have remained dead letter: – Are newcampions emerging in the sector? – what about the strategic objective, which was stated as follows: ICT activities and teleservices are the driving force behind the Senegalese economy thanks to their dynamism and competitiveness, notably through the training of 10 000 ICT and teleservice specialists and the creation of activities to raise the sector’s GDP contribution to 15 % And generate at least 240,000 jobs by 2015 “?

– has the level of intentions for the production of digital content for cultural purposes, the outsourcing of services by companies, administration and local authorities been exceeded? – What has become of the ten digital projects to build e-Senegal and e- investments in central administration, local communities, education, health, etc.? As in Senegal, we are stronger in the analysis and formulation of visions and strategies than in the formulation of concrete action plans, their implementation and their follow-up, the great ambitions declared have for the most part remained Pious wishes. Worse, Senegal is falling in a field that is essential to make the country a magnet of attraction in Africa, even in the world: the Internet high and very high bit rates. Indeed, the broadband Internet strategy seems non-existent or very unreadable, while other countries such as Morocco, Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya or Rwanda have clear ambitions set out in tangible action plans. Moreover, based on the comparative measurements made by NET INDEX1, Senegal is ranked in the last place in the world and in Africa in terms of Internet quality.

This worrying and abnormal situation needs to be taken very seriously and corrective measures taken immediately, given the importance of the Internet in the digital economy and its impact on economic growth. Several studies have shown the positive effects of the Internet on economic growth: a World Bank study in 2009 estimated that a 10% increase in broadband Internet penetration leads to growth of 1, 21 to 1.38% of GDP. In a more recent study – December 2011 – commissioned by GSMA2, it has been demonstrated that the release of the digital dividend and the assignment to mobile operators of the frequencies required for high-speed Internet services would have an impact on the GDP of 158 billion FCFA Between 2015 and 2020, resulting in the creation of 271,000 jobs. Beyond the figures, it is a truism to say that the very high Internet opens the field of all possible: it paves the way for all possible uses and imaginable and gives free rein to creativity and innovation . Indeed, when the network forgets itself and the technique becomes invisible and disappears behind the usages, everything becomes possible and then “one hundred flowers can flourish and one hundred schools compete”. Understanding this, the United Nations, through ITU and UNESCO, created the Commission on Broadband for Digital Development and launched the “broadband” challenge on 25 October 2011 by calling for:

- the world's leaders to take the necessary steps to ensure that at least 50% of people in developing countries and 40% of households in developing countries use high-speed Internet by 2015 and that all consumers Countries have access to broadband Internet at an affordable price;
- the ICT industry to develop innovative business models to make this vision a reality;
- governments to make broadband policy a universal issue and define the policy and regulatory frameworks that will ensure that the sector operates in a stable regulatory environment that enables it to operate, prosper and tap broadband In the interest of sustainable human development;
- Governments to develop policies and targets for e-health and e-learning at the national level to encourage the demand for broadband services.
- Governments and civil society, through a fully inclusive and consultative process, to encourage the production of local content and the development of services and applications in local languages ​​in the service of an inclusive digital world. To make it clear that the digital divide is going to be less and less to be connected and those that are not, but rather between those who are up and very high and those who are not.
Moreover, although Senegal's leadership in ICT in Africa tends to weaken, the country still has strong assets and can draw from the rich history of the ICT sector the inspiration needed to do its job. Digital aggiornamento.
Indeed, in the field of ICTs, Senegal has often been a forerunner in Africa and has on several occasions made remarkable achievements, taken bold initiatives:

- the national telecommunications days of 1982 or 1983 are the foundation of the modern history of ICT in Senegal: the government and the actors of the sector then took the historic, audacious and rare decision to separate the sector The post office of telecommunications; This led to the creation of Sonatel in 1985 and made it an entity with management autonomy;

- Allied with a virtuous and far-seeing management of the company, other decisions and attitudes of the rulers such as the real autonomy left to the managers in the operational management of the company, the privatization in 1997 before liberalizing going against - current of the dogmas of Bank Manque, have allowed Sonatel to develop inside and outside our borders and make Senegal a reference in telecommunications in Africa. Courageous and salutary decisions and attitudes, as sophisticated observers in the telecommunications sector know that there are practically no countries with a developed telecommunication network without a strong historical operator;
- in terms of advanced services and services for businesses, Senegal has always been at the forefront with videotex since 1988, audiotex, corporate data communication services with the SENPAC services network in 1988 Followed by the IP network in 1997, the launch of the mobile in 1886, the Internet access point in 1996, ADSL in 2003, TVADSL in 2006, etc.
- with regard to the development of national and international infrastructures and regional planning,

– analogue submarine cables – as of 1977 – and digital (Atlantis 2 in 2000 with 20 Gbit / s capacity, SAT3 in 2002 with 380 Gbit / s, ACE in 2012 with 5.2 Tbit / International standard; – the choice in 1990 of fiber optic technology for the construction of the national transmission network; – in order to realize the importance given to serving rural areas, a clear, measurable and friendly goal for the time was defined in 1990 as part of the contract between Sonatel and the State: “In 2005, each Senegalese Should be less than an hour’s walk from a walking phone. ” Moreover, the telecommunication sector’s share of the national economy remains high: with nearly 7% of GDP in 2009, more than 12% contribution to the state’s budgetary revenues and more than 50 000 direct and indirect jobs. Indirectly created, it is by far the most prosperous of the national economy, but also, through the receipts from incoming international traffic, among those which favorably influence the balance of goods and services. In sum, the decades 1980 – 1990 and 1990 – 2010 were those of building foundations of the ICT sector with the preeminence of telecommunications operators; Missed opportunities, pious wishes, disappointed hopes, smoky theories and, very concretely, the beginning of the decline of Senegal’s leadership in Africa. The current decade is marked by the acceleration of the phenomena which were born during the 2000:

– the emergence of new players, followers of the cuckoo strategy, pushing the established order and traditional operators with new economic models; The GAFA (Google Amazon Facebook Apple) are the emblematic representatives; – “commoditisation” of the basic services of telecommunications operators; – new uses: payment and mobile banking, social networks, internet of objects, multiple applications offered for download, etc. Digitization of the world takes place on a forced march, and only those actors (states, companies, organizations) that are fastest, most willing and able to innovate will succeed. For Senegal, it is time to move from intentions to action, accelerate integration into the digital world to make the most of the digital economy. To do so, it is essential to get out of the compliance highways, to think differently and to take concrete action in order to cross a digital “New Frontier”. To achieve this, it is essential to have a clear, simple vision that is capable of mobilizing energies and defining them in actions that are concrete, measurable and ambitious. Regarding the vision, its formulation has varied according to the changes in regimes, but the background has not changed much: it has always been to make Senegal a country of services, to build an e-Senegal. Without wanting to replace me with the decision-makers, I would like to propose a formulation that allows us to follow the path of true development: “Become, by 2017, a country recognized in the world for socio-economic impact and quality Of its digital services “. To realize this ambition, without pretending to want to draw up a comprehensive action plan that requires broad consultation with all stakeholders in the sector, I feel it is necessary to implement some urgent measures:

Restore and sustainably control the quality of telecommunications services, including the Internet, through a charter that could be called “meeting the challenge of QoS”. Beyond the contractual obligations of the specifications and the possible financial penalties that have never settled anything, the public commitment of the operators and the state represented by the ARTP will raise and maintain – Within a reasonable timeframe of 6 to 12 months – Senegal ranks first in QoS in rankings by reputable organizations; First in Africa, then in the world; Launch, in consultation with operators and other interested actors, a “4G now” initiative consisting of having a broad coverage of the population in high and high-speed Internet services within a period of 3 to 4 years, according to technical modalities And financial resources to be negotiated. For example, Rwanda has decided to cover 95% of its population in 4 years of high-speed 4G Internet services with the aim of “creating jobs, supporting social progress and propelling economic growth”; Provide significant support to service companies, start-ups and developers in order to elicit future champions emergence: a. By enabling CTIC Dakar, which is doing remarkable work, to broaden its activities, by providing resources and resources and by opening other incubators as close as possible to universities and institutes of higher studies, B. By setting up innovative financing to support the development of digital services that are potentially of high economic and / or social impact or likely to be exported. The telecommunications operators, who are the strongest players in the sector, will have to be strongly encouraged to contribute;

Make the state a model in the promotion and use of digital services: this will necessarily mean a bold policy for the development of digital administrative services. The state, through the ADIE, will be able to make two strokes of a stone by entrusting the projects to local companies and developers: to bring useful services to the populations and to contribute to the emergence of new champions; Identifying and defining promising areas to which the efforts and resources of the public authorities will be given priority. There is no shortage of candidates: Payment and mobile banking: in the order of $ 170 billion in 2012, according to IDC Financial, the volume of global mobile transactions would reach $ 1,000 billion by 2017, “The Internet of things”, in other words the “machine-to-machine”: 50 billion connected objects planned in the world in 2020, C. Data centers and cloud services: Gartner assessed the global cloud market at $ 68.3 billion in 2010, with a forecast of $ 149 billion in 2014, Big Data solutions which constitute a new market on which a large number of players are in the process of positioning themselves. The Gartner Institute estimated the global market at $ 27 billion in 2012 and considers it could rise to $ 55 billion by 2016, The development of high-level local expertise on topics such as IP V6, high and very high-speed mobile technologies, development of services and applications in the most current operating systems and environments, and also The most promising, network security, Services and applications based on local and African content, a field that is still under-explored. In reality, the opportunities are almost limitless and some, particularly in Africa, remain unexplored. Senegal has many assets in hand to succeed brilliantly. It is still, and above all, a matter of foresight, boldness, resolution and, above all, the capacity for execution which “consists in translating decisions into action, implementing them despite resistance, chaos or unforeseen obstacles . Whoever possesses this quality knows that winning is a matter of results. »3 Samba Sene, August 2013 Actor in the ICT sector Sambasene@wissafrica.com

 

L'innovation "Jugaad"

Bonjour,

Je souhaite partager avec vous un article sur un modèle d’innovation auquel je m’intéresse depuis quelques mois et dont l’Afrique pourrait s’inspirer. Il s’agit de l’innovation frugale ou encore innovation “Jugaad” d’un mot hindi – je crois – qu’on peut traduire en français à peu près par bidouillage ou débrouillardise. Il s’agit de “faire  beaucoup avec moins” et de “transformer le plomb de l’adversité en or d’opportunités”. 
Pour ce qui concerne l’Afrique, l’innovation “Jugaad” consisterait d’abord à faire confiance à nos populations, à notre jeunesse et à nos savoir-faire locaux et à valoriser l’esprit de débrouillardise ingénieuse et positive. 
Soyons un peu moins extravertis et donnons à nos populations et surtout à notre jeunesse la possibilité de concevoir et de développer des solutions adaptées à nos besoins et à notre environnement et de fabriquer des outils et des instruments tournés vers la résolution de nos problèmes concrets; les résultats – j’en suis intimement convaincu – viendront plus vite qu’on ne l’imagine. 
Osons le numérique, osons l’industrie et disséminons partout en Afrique – dans nos villes et dans nos campagnes – des incubateurs et des accélérateurs de start-ups, ainsi que des fablabs. Ce sera  alors le début de la renaissance de l’Afrique.
Merci et à bientôt 

Leadership

Leadership? “Une armée de lions dirigée par un mouton sera toujours battue par une armée de moutons dirigée par un lion”. Proverbe arabe.
 Africains, nous devons être une armée de lions dirigée par un lion! Telle est la voie pour le véritable développement qui va largement au delà de l’émergence. Émergence qui semble être devenue la Nouvelle Frontière comme l’ont été les plans d’ajustement structurels, les stratégies de sortie de la pauvreté, etc.
Africains, soyons plus ambitieux, plus audacieux et plus innovants, car c’est “en visant la lune qu’on finit parmi les étoiles”.
Merci et bonne journée